African Fern Pine (Updated 2023)


The African Fern Pine, aka Podocarpus Gracilior, scientifically known as Afrocarpus Gracilior, is a striking evergreen conifer that hails from Eastern Africa. With its fern-like foliage and adaptable nature, this tree has gained popularity in urban and suburban areas across USDA zones 10 and 11. Whether you’re looking for a shade tree, a hedge, or a decorative plant, the African Fern Pine fits the bill. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the key aspects of this magnificent tree, from its identification and native habitat to planting, care, and maintenance tips.

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Identification and Native Habitat:

The African Fern Pine stands tall and proud, featuring a single upright trunk that can reach heights of 50 to 65 feet and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. Its evergreen foliage consists of long, slender leaves, each growing up to 4 inches in length, creating a feathery appearance akin to ferns. The tree’s bark starts as reddish-brown and matures to a light grey, adding to its aesthetic appeal. The flowers are inconspicuous, with male flowers being yellow and cone-shaped, while the female flowers produce fleshy, round fruits that turn from green to yellow and red when ripe. This species is highly adaptable, thriving in warmer climates and well-drained soils, making it an ideal choice for urban landscapes.

II. Planting the African Fern Pine:

For those fortunate enough to reside in USDA zones 10 and 11, planting the African Fern Pine is a rewarding endeavor. Early spring or fall are the best times to introduce this tree to your garden. With a moderate growth rate of 12 to 36 inches per year, it is essential to consider its eventual size when choosing a location. Whether you wish to grow it as a tree or a hedge, the African Fern Pine can be tailored to suit your landscape needs. It is crucial to provide ample space for its growth and spread, with an option to prune for a more compact shape. Additionally, ensuring protection from frost and avoiding areas exposed to aerosol salt are key considerations for its successful establishment.

Caring for the African Fern Pine:

  1. Sunlight: The African Fern Pine thrives in direct morning sunlight and tolerates partial shade. While it can withstand hot climates, some shade during scorching hours is preferable.
  2. Soil: This tree is not finicky when it comes to soil and can grow in poor-quality or compacted soil. It prefers slightly acidic soil but can thrive in neutral to slightly alkaline conditions.
  3. Water: Adequate watering during the first two years is essential for establishment, followed by a reduced watering frequency during the third year. Once mature, the African Fern Pine demonstrates excellent drought tolerance, but regular watering contributes to its optimal growth.
  4. Temperature and Humidity: Resistant to smog and tolerant of urban conditions, this tree fares best in USDA zones 9 to 11. Protecting it from freezing temperatures is crucial, as cold shocks can cause leaf browning.
  5. Fertilizer: An all-purpose fertilizer applied in spring before new growth begins will enhance the tree’s health and vigor.
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Pruning and Propagation:

Pruning is necessary during the early years to maintain a central leader and encourage a healthy branch structure. Once established, pruning is limited to shaping the tree to the desired size and form. For propagation, cuttings are the preferred method, as seeds are often consumed by birds and wildlife. Propagation from cuttings involves rooting hormone application and patience, as it can take up to a year for successful root development.

Uses and Benefits:

The African Fern Pine offers versatility, making it an ideal choice for various landscaping purposes. From being used as an accent tree, privacy hedge, or barrier bush to creating a stunning wall espalier or patio tree, its beauty knows no bounds. Moreover, its low maintenance requirements, resistance to pests, and ability to thrive in challenging conditions, including poor soils and urban settings, make it a popular choice for beautifying sidewalks, highways, and urban landscapes. In East Africa, the tree’s hardy wood finds applications in carpentry, paneling, and flooring.


The African Fern Pine, Afrocarpus gracilior, is an exceptional addition to any garden or landscape, bringing a touch of elegance and serenity with its fern-like foliage and weeping branches. Its adaptability to various growing conditions, low maintenance requirements, and resistance to pests and diseases make it a favored choice among gardeners and landscapers alike. Whether you wish to create a lush shade tree, a trimmed hedge, or a topiary masterpiece, the African Fern Pine is ready to lend its grace and beauty to your outdoor space for generations to come. Embrace this charming conifer, and watch it thrive and enchant your surroundings with its unique allure and green canopy.

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